Python | The 「Format」 you don't know

Python Tips about 「Format」.

The 「%」

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>>> str = 'str'

>>> print('X1: This is a %s' % str)
X1: This is a str

>>> print('X2: This is %(kwargs)s' % {'kwargs':str})
X2: This is str

The 「format」

By args position

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>>> '{0}, {1}, {2}'.format('a', 'b', 'c')
'a, b, c'
>>> '{}, {}, {}'.format('a', 'b', 'c') # 3.1+ only
'a, b, c'
>>> '{2}, {1}, {0}'.format('a', 'b', 'c')
'c, b, a'
>>> '{2}, {1}, {0}'.format(*'abc') # unpacking argument sequence
'c, b, a'
>>> '{0}{1}{0}'.format('abra', 'cad') # arguments' indices can be repeated 'abracadabra'

By args name

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>>> 'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}'.format(latitude='37.24N', longitude='-115.81W')
'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W'
>>> coord = {'latitude': '37.24N', 'longitude': '-115.81W'}
>>> 'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}'.format(**coord)
'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W'

Assign args attributes

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>>> c = 3-5j
>>> ('The complex number {0} is formed from the real part {0.real} '
... 'and the imaginary part {0.imag}.').format(c)
'The complex number (3-5j) is formed from the real part 3.0 and the imaginary part -5.0.'
>>> class Point:
... def __init__(self, x, y):
... self.x, self.y = x, y
... def __str__(self):
... return 'Point({self.x}, {self.y})'.format(self=self)
...
>>> str(Point(4, 2))
'Point(4, 2)'

Accessing args items

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>>> coord = (3, 5)
>>> 'X: {0[0]}; Y: {0[1]}'.format(coord)
'X: 3; Y: 5'

Replacing %s and %r

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>>> "repr() shows quotes: {!r}; str() doesn't: {!s}".format('test1', 'test2')
"repr() shows quotes: 'test1'; str() doesn't: test2"

Aligning the text and specifying a width

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>>> '{:<30}'.format('left aligned')
'left aligned '
>>> '{:>30}'.format('right aligned')
' right aligned'
>>> '{:^30}'.format('centered')
' centered '
>>> '{:*^30}'.format('centered') # use '*' as a fill char
'***********centered***********'

Replacing %+f, %-f, and % f and specifying a sign

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>>> '{:+f}; {:+f}'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show it always
'+3.140000; -3.140000'
>>> '{: f}; {: f}'.format(3.14, -3.14) # show a space for positive numbers
' 3.140000; -3.140000'
>>> '{:-f}; {:-f}'.format(3.14, -3.14) # show only the minus -- same as '{:f}; {:f}'
'3.140000; -3.140000'

Replacing %x and %o and converting the value to different bases

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>>> # format also supports binary numbers
>>> "int: {0:d}; hex: {0:x}; oct: {0:o}; bin: {0:b}".format(42)
'int: 42; hex: 2a; oct: 52; bin: 101010'
>>> # with 0x, 0o, or 0b as prefix:
>>> "int: {0:d}; hex: {0:#x}; oct: {0:#o}; bin: {0:#b}".format(42)
'int: 42; hex: 0x2a; oct: 0o52; bin: 0b101010'

Using the comma as a thousands separator

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>>> '{:,}'.format(1234567890)
'1,234,567,890'

Expressing a percentage

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>>> points = 19
>>> total = 22
>>> 'Correct answers: {:.2%}'.format(points/total)
'Correct answers: 86.36%'

Using type-specific formatting

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>>> import datetime
>>> d = datetime.datetime(2010, 7, 4, 12, 15, 58)
>>> '{:%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S}'.format(d)
'2010-07-04 12:15:58'

More

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>>> for align, text in zip('<^>', ['left', 'center', 'right']):
... '{0:{fill}{align}16}'.format(text, fill=align, align=align)
...
'left<<<<<<<<<<<<'
'^^^^^center^^^^^'
'>>>>>>>>>>>right'
>>>
>>> octets = [192, 168, 0, 1]
>>> '{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}'.format(*octets)
'C0A80001'
>>> int(_, 16)
3232235521
>>>
>>> width = 5
>>> for num in range(5,12):
... for base in 'dXob':
... print('{0:{width}{base}}'.format(num, base=base, width=width), end=' ')
... print()
...
5 5 5 101
6 6 6 110
7 7 7 111
8 8 10 1000
9 9 11 1001
10 A 12 1010
11 B 13 1011